63. Md. Azahar Ali, George Fei Zhang, Chunshan Hu, Bin Yuan, Shou-Jiang Gao, Rahul Panat, “An Advanced Healthcare Sensing Platform for Direct Detection of Viral Proteins in Seconds at Femtomolar Concentrations via Aerosol Jet 3D-Printed Nano and Biomaterials.” Advanced Materials Interfaces, March 2024. DOI, PDF

62. Mert Arslanoglu, Bin Yuan, Rahul Panat, O. Burak Ozdoganlar, “3D Assembly of MXene Networks Using a Ceramic Backbone with Controlled Porosity.” Advanced Materials, Oct. 2023, p. 2304757. DOI, PDF

61. S. Ritchie, S. Kovacevic, P. Deshmukh, A. Christodoulides, J. Malen, S. D. Mesarovic, and R. P. Panat, “Shape distortion in sintering results from nonhomogeneous temperature activating a long-range mass transport,” Nature Communications, 14, 2667 (2023). DOI, PDF, video.

Here, we discover why part distortion happens in sintering-based AM processes!

60. Yayati Jadhav, Joseph Berthel, Chunshan Hu, Rahul Panat, Jack Beuth, Amir Barati Farimani, “StressD: 2D Stress Estimation Using Denoising Diffusion Model.” Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, vol. 416, Nov. 2023, p. 116343. DOI, PDF.

59. J. Brenneman, M. Lovalekar, and R. P. Panat, “A Semi‐Empirical Model for Post‐yield Stress‐instability in the Stress‐Strain Response of Three‐dimensional Lattice Structures Under Compressive Loads,” Advanced Engineering Materials, 202201428 (2023). DOI, PDF.

58. M. S. Saleh, S. Ritchie, M. A. Nicholas, H. L. Gordon, C. Hu, S. Jahan, B. Yuan, R. Bezbaruah, J. W. Reddy, Z. Ahmed, M. Chamanzar, E. A. Yttri, and R. P. Panat, “CMU Array: A 3D Nano-Printed, Highly Customizable High-Density Microelectrode Array Platform,” Science Advances, 8, eabj4853,  (2022). DOI, Journal image, PDF

57. M. A. Ali, G. Fei Zhang, C. Hu, B. Yuan, S. Jahan, G. D. Kitsios, A. Morris, S.-J. Gao, R. P. Panat, “Ultra-Rapid and Ultra-Sensitive Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in COVID-19 Patients via A 3D-Printed Nanomaterial-Based Biosensing Platform,” Journal of Medical Virology, 94 (12) 5808-5826,  (2022).  DOI PDF Journal Cover Image

Impact factor = 20.6, provided as many engineers may be unfamiliar with this journal

Front Cover Caption: The cover image is based on the Research Article Ultrarapid and ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19 patients via a 3D-printed nanomaterial-based biosensing platform by Md. Azahar Ali et al., .

56. J. Brenneman, D. Z. Tansel, G. K. Fedder, and R. P. Panat, “High-conductivity crack-free three-dimensional electrical interconnects directly printed on soft PDMS substrates“, Advanced Materials Technologies, 2200396, 1-15 2022. DOI PDF

55. M. Arslanoglu, B. Ozdoganlar, and R. Panat, “Fabrication of porous silica with controllable and tunable porosity via freeze casting“, Journal of the American Ceramic Society105 (8), 5114-5130, 2022. DOI PDF 

54. M. A. Ali, C. Hu, F. Zhang, S. Jahan, B. Yuan, M. S. Saleh, S.-J. Gao, R. Panat, “N-protein based Ultrasensitive SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Detection in Seconds via 3D Nanoprinted Microarchitected Array Electrodes”, Journal of Medical Virology, 2022; 1 – 12DOI PDF

53. M. A. Ali, C. Hu, B. Yuan, S. Jahan, M. S. Saleh, Z. Guo, A. J. Gellman, R. Panat, “Breaking the barrier to biomolecule limit-of-detection via 3D printed multi-length-scale graphene-coated electrodes”, Nature Communications, 12(1),7077-1 to 7077-16, 2021DOI PDF

News on

52. M. A. Ali, C. Hu, E. A. Yttri, and R. Panat, “Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Biomedical Sensing Devices“, Advanced Functional Materials, 2107671, 2021. DOI. PDF. (Invited Review) Inside Cover

51. M. A. Ali, C. Hu, S. Jahan, B. Yuan, M. S. Saleh, E. Ju, S.-J. Gao, and R. Panat, “Sensing of COVID-19 Antibodies in Seconds via Aerosol Jet Printed Three Dimensional Electrodes”, Advanced Materials, 33(7) 2006647, 2021. PDF; DOISelected for Adv Mater Cover Image

Our group has achieved testing of COVID-19 antibodies in 10 seconds!!
CMU News: Imagine a 10-second COVID-19 antibody test—we’re on our way!; Advanced Science News
Cover of Adv Mater: In article number 2006647, Rahul Panat and co‐workers report the development of a 10‐second COVID‐19 antibody test that represents the fastest detection of this pathogen biomarker. The test uses an electrochemical cell consisting of aerosol jet nanoprinted 3D micropillar electrodes coated with reduced graphene oxide and viral antigens. This generic platform could be a game‐changer in controlling the spread of infectious diseases during pandemics.

50. P. Borade, M. A. Ali, S. Jahan, T. Sant, K. Bogle, R. Panat, S. Jejurikar, “MoS2 Nanosheet-Modified NiO Layers on Conducting Carbon Paper for Glucose Sensing”, ACS Applied Nano Materials, 4, pp.6609-6619 (2021). PDF

49. Md. Taibur Rahman and R. Panat, “Aerosol Jet 3D Printing and High Temperature Characterization of Nickel Nanoparticle Films”, Manufacturing Letters, 29, pp.5 (2021). PDF DOI

48. J. Brenneman, D. Tansel, G. Fedder, and R. Panat, “Interfacial Delamination and Delamination Mechanism Maps for 3D Printed Flexible Electrical Interconnects”, Extreme Mechanics Letters, 43, pp. 101199 (2021)PDF DOI

This work appeared on the cover of vol. 43 of EML.

47. M. Sadeq Saleh§, C. Hu§, J. Brenneman, A. M. A. Mutairi, and R. Panat, “3D Printed Three-dimensional Metallic Microlattices with Controlled and Tunable Mechanical Properties via Aerosol Jet 3D Printing”, Additive Manufacturing, 39, 101856 (2021). PDF, DOI
§ Equal contribution

46. M. Hamid, S. Saleh, A. Afrozian, R. Panat, and H. Zbib, “Modeling of porosity and grain size effects on mechanical behavior of additively manufactured structures”, Additive Manufacturing,  28, pp. 101833, 2021. PDF, DOI

45. P. Borade, T. Sant, A. Gokarna, K. Joshi, R. Panat, S. Jejurikar, “Role of defects in modulating the near band edge emissions of sub-micron ZnO crystals”, Optical Materials, 109, pp. 110348, 2020. PDF; DOI

44. Y. Zhu, J. Li, M. S. Saleh, R. Panat, J. Park, “Towards High-Performance Li-ion Batteries via Optimized Three-dimensional Micro-lattice Electrode Architectures”, Journal of Power Sources, 476, 228593, 1-18, 2020. PDF; DOI

43. D. Tansel, J. Brenneman, G. Fedder, R. Panat, “Mechanical Characterization of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Exposed to Thermal Histories up to 300 °C in a Vacuum Environment”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 30, pp. 0670012020. PDF

42. B., Mallesham, F. Manciu, S. Tan, R. Panat, C. V. Ramana, ” Unravelling the Sintering Temperature Induced Phase Transformations in Ba(Fe0.7Ta0.3)O3-δ Ceramics”,  Ceramics International, 46 (14), pp. 23257, 2020. PDF

41. M. Sadeq SalehS. M. RitchieM. A. NicholasR. BezbaruahJ. W. ReddyM. ChamanzarE. A. YttriR. P. Panat, “CMU Array: A 3D Nano-Printed, Customizable Ultra-High-Density Microelectrode Array Platform” Submitted, preprint available on BioRxiv, 742346 (2019).

40. Md T. Rahman, C. H. Cheng, B. Karagoz, M. Renn, M. Schrandt, A. Gellman, and R. Panat, “High Performance Flexible Temperature Sensors via Nanoparticle Printing”, ACS Applied Nano Materials,  Vol. 2, Issue 5, pp. 3280-3291 (2019). PDF

Nanoparticles of Cu and CuNi were printed on a flexible Kapton substrates and sintered using a low-power laser. The resulting temperature sensor has linear repeatable response with the highest sensitivity in film based sensors yet reported in literature and extremely high strain tolerance to 200 cycles of bending (to three radii) and twisting. TEM work shows nanoparticles with varying degree of coalescence with connections that may act as springs to give rise to the high strain tolerance.

39. S. Manandhar, A. Battu, S. Tan, R. Panat, V. Shutthanandan, C. V . Ramana, “Effect of Ti Doping on the Crystallography, Phase, Surface/Interface Structure and Optical Band Gap of Ga2O3 Thin Films”, Journal of Materials Science, 54, pp.11526–11537 (2019). PDF

38. R. Danaei, T. Varghese, M. Ahmadzadeh, J. McCloy, C. Hollar, M. Sadeq Saleh, J. Park, Y. Zhang, R. Panat, “Ultrafast Fabrication of Thermoelectric Films by Pulsed Light Sintering of Colloidal Nanoparticles on Flexible and Rigid Substrates”, Advanced Engineering Materials, 21, pp. 1800800 (2019).PDF

37. Y. Arafat, S. T. Sultana, I. Dutta, R. Panat, “Effect of Additives on the Microstructure of Electroplated Tin Films”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165 (16), D816-D824 (2018). PDF

Interesting Sn microstructures never obtained before were realized by changing additives to a methanesulfonic acid electroplating bath. See paper for complete characterization including cathodic polarization plots and mechanisms of film formation.

36. R. Panat, J.Park, M. S. Saleh, and J. Li, “3D-Printed Lattice Batteries”, Homeland Defense Information Analysis Center (HDIAC) Journal, 5 (4), pp. 11 (2018). PDF

35. J. Li, X. Liang, R. Panat, and J. Park, “Enhanced Battery Performance through Three-Dimensional Structured Electrodes: Experimental and Modeling Study” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 165 (14), A3566-A3573 (2018). PDF

34a. “3D printing of Li-ion Battery Electrodes”, article about our work in the Tribology and Lubrication Technology Magazine, Nov 2018. PDF

34. M. Sadeq Saleh, Jie Li, Jonghyun Park, and Rahul Panat, “3D Printed Hierarchically-Porous Microlattice Electrode Materials for Exceptionally High Specific Capacity and Areal Capacity Lithium Ion Batteries”, Additive Manufacturing, Vol.23, pp 70-78 (2018). PDF

The research appeared in several media outlets  including Forbes Magazine….
1- Forbes Magazine: See How This New 3D Printing Method Could Make Your Smartphone Last Longer
2- Green Car CongressCMU-led team develops 3D printing method  for exceptionally high capacity batteries
4- Printed electronics:  3D printing the next generation of batteries
5- 3D Printing Industry: 3D Printing creates major advance for longer lasting batteries
6- CMU news: 3D Printing the next generation of batteries
7- German Media: New “Aerosol Jet” method relies on 3D printing for electrodes of lithium-ion batteries and promises longer battery life
8- Japanese media: 3D打印技术造出微观多孔锂电池,容量提升了4倍

33. Y. Arafat, R. Panat, I. Dutta, “Highly Stretchable Metal Films on Polymer Substrates: Mechanics and Mechanisms”, IEEE ITherm2018, pp. 32-36 (2018) PDF, Link

32. M. Sadeq Saleh, Mehdi HamidVishkasougheh, H. Zbib, and R. Panat, “Polycrystalline Micropillars by a Novel 3-D Printing Method and Their Behavior under Compressive Loads”, Scripta Materialia,  Volume 149, 144–149, 2018. PDF

31. M. T. Rahman, R. Moser, H. Zbib, C. V. Ramana, and R. Panat, “3D Printed High Performance High Temperature Sensors”, Journal of Applied Physics,  123, 024501, 2018. PDF

CMU News: 3D Printing Remakes the Strain Gauge
News on
News on Business Standard (Indian News)
News on 3D Print Magazine

30. M. Sadeq Saleh, C. Hu, and R. Panat, “Three Dimensional Micro-architected Materials and Devices using Nanoparticle Assembly by Pointwise Spatial Printing”, Science Advances, 3, e1601986, 2017PDF

29. J. Geng, M. T. Rahman, R. Panat, and L. Li, “Self-assembled Axisymmetric Microscale Periodic Wrinkles on Elastomer Fibers”, ASME Journal of Micro and Nano-manufacturingVol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 021006, 2017. PDF

28. R. Sun, H. Yang, M. Rock, R. Danaei, R. Panat, M. Kessler, and L. Li, “Manufacturing PDMS Micro Lens Array using Spin Coating under a Multiphase System”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 27(5), pp.1, 2017. PDF

27. M. T. Rahman, J. Gomez, K. Mireles, P. Wo, J. Marcial, M. Kessler, J. McCloy, C. Ramana, and R. Panat, “High temperature physical and chemical stability and oxidation reaction kinetics of Ni-Cr nanoparticles”, Journal of Physical Chemistry – C, Vol.121 (7), pp. 4018–4028, 2017. PDF

26. J. Li, M. Leu, R. Panat and J. Park, “A Hybrid Three-Dimensionally Structured Electrode for Lithium-ion Batteries via 3D Printing”, Materials and Design, Vol. 119, pp. 417-424, 2017PDF

25. Brian Paul, Rahul Panat, Christina Mastrangelo, and David Kim, and David Johnson “Manufacturing of Smart Goods: Current State, Future Potential, and Research Recommendations”,  ASME Journal of Micro and Nano-manufacturingVol. 4, Issue 4, pp. 044001-1 to 044001-12, 2016. PDF

24. Y. Arafat, I. Dutta, R. Panat, “On the Deformation Mechanisms and Electrical Behavior of Highly Stretchable Metallic Interconnects on Elastomer Substrates”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 11, pp. 115103-1 to 11, 2016. PDF

23. M. T. Rahman, J. McCloy, C. V. Ramana, and R. Panat, “Structure, Electrical Characteristics and High-Temperature Stability of Aerosol Jet Printed Silver Nanoparticle Films”, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 7, pp. 075305-1 to 11, 2016. PDF

22. M. T. Rahman, A. Rahimi, S. Gupta, and R. Panat, “Microscale Additive Manufacturing and Modeling of Interdigitated Capacitive Touch Sensors”, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, Vol. 248, 94-103, 2016. PDF

21. H. Yang, M. T. Rahman, D. Du, R. Panat, and Y. Lin, “3-D Printed Adjustable Microelectrode Arrays for Electrochemical Sensing and Biosensing”, Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, Vol. 230, 600-606, 2016. PDF

20. Y. Arafat, I. Dutta, R. Panat, “Super-stretchable Metallic Interconnects on Polymer with a Linear Strain of up to 100%” Applied Physics Letters, 107, 081906, 2015. PDF

19. M. T. Rahman, L. Renaud, M. Renn, D. Heo, R. Panat, “Aerosol Based Direct-Write Micro-Additive Fabrication Method for Sub-mm 3-D Metal-Dielectric Structures” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Vol. 25 (10), 107002 (2015). PDF

18. R. Panat, “A Model for Crack Initiation in the Li-ion Battery Electrodes”, Thin Solid Films, Vol. 596, pp. 174 178 (2015). PDF

17. M. T. Rahman, L. Renaud, M. Renn, D. Heo, R. Panat, “3-D Antenna Structures Using Novel Direct-Write Additive Manufacturing Method”, ASME 2015 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, Paper No. IPACK2015-48187, pp. V003T03A002 (2015). Link

16. Y. Arafat, I. Dutta, R. Panat, “Highly Stretchable Interconnects for Flexible Electronics Applications” ASME 2015 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems, Paper No. IPACK2015-48130, pp. V002T02A029 (2015). Link

15. Z. Song, T. Ma, R Tang, Q. Cheng, X. Wang, D. Krishnaraju, R. Panat, C. K. Chan, H. Yu, and H. Jiang, “Origami Lithium Ion Batteries”, Nature Communications, 5:3140, 10.1038/ncomms4140, (2014). PDF

14. R. Panat, S. Dattaguru, H. Balkan, Y. Min, H. Seh, X. Zhao, “Mechanical Reliability of Embedding of Components in Ultra-High Performance Microprocessors”, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, Vol. 4 (5), 857 (2014). PDF.

13. R. Panat, E. Parks, and J. Wang, “Effects of triboelectrostactic changing between polymer surfaces in manufacturing and test of integrated circuit packages”, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Vol. 4 (5), 943 (2014). PDF.

12. R. Panat, “On the data and analysis of research output of India and China: India has significantly fallen behind China”, Scientometrics (Springer), Vol. 100 (2), 471-481 (2014). PDF.

11. R. Panat, V. Dimitrova, S. Selvamundiany, K. Ishiko, and D. Sun, “The application of Lean Six Sigma to the configuration control in Intel’s manufacturing R&D environment”, International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, Vol. 5 No. 4, 444-459 (2014). PDF

10. Y. Min, R. Olmedo, M. Hill, K. Radhakrishnan, K. Aygun, M. Kabiri-badr, R. Panat, S. Dattaguru, and H. Balkan, “Embedded Capacitors in the Next Generation Processor”, 63rd ECTC Conference, IEEE, 1225-1229 (2013). PDF.

9. N. Raravikar, R. Panat, and S. Jadhav, “A tombstone initiation model for small form factor surface mount passives” IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing, Vol. 2 (9), 1486-1491 (2012).

8. Li Yan, R. Panat, R. Mulligan, P. Srinath, and A. Raman, “The application of 2D X-ray hot stage in flip chip package failure analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials ReliabilityVol. 11 (1), 141-147 (2011). PDF.

7. R. Panat, K.J. Hsia and D.G. Cahill, “Evolution of surface waviness in thin films via volume and surface diffusion”, Journal of Applied Physics, 97, 013521 (2005). PDF.

6.  R. Panat, K.J. Hsia and J. Oldham, “Observation of rumpling instability in thermal barrier systems under isothermal conditions in vacuum”, Philosophical Magazine, 85 (1), 45-64 (2005). PDF

5. R. Panat and K.J. Hsia, “Experimental investigation of the bond coat rumpling instability under cyclic and isothermal temperature histories in thermal barrier systems,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol. 460, 1957-1979 (2004). PDF.

4. R. Panat, S. Zhang and K.J. Hsia, “Bond coat surface rumpling in thermal barrier coatings” Acta Materialia, 51, 239-249 (2003). PDF.

3. S. Zhang, R. Panat and K.J. Hsia, “Influence of surface morphology on the adhesion strength of aluminum/epoxy interfaces”, Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 17 (12), 1685-1711 (2003). PDF

2. R. Panat, K. Jakus, J.E. Ritter and P. Shah, “Erosion and strength degradation of an elastic modulus graded alumina-glass composite,” Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 21, 3 (2000) 635. PDF

1.  J.E. Ritter, K. Jakus, R. Panat, “Impact damage and strength degradation of fused silica,” MRS Symposium Proceedings, 531 (1998) 53. Link


11. G. K. Fedder, R. Panat, J. Brenneman, D. Z. Tansel, “Stretchable 3D-printed circuit boards” U.S. Patent #11856708, issued December 2023. PDF

10. R. Panat, J. Park, M. S. Saleh, and J. Lie, “Three-dimensional lattice batteries via additive manufacturing” U.S. Patent #11817588, issued November 2023. PDF

9. R. Panat, E. Yttri, and M. S. Saleh, “3D Printed Microelectrode Array,” U.S. Patent Application Filed PCT/US2019/016050, filed February 2019. PDF

8. T. C. Karni, R. Garg, S. Rastogi, R. Panat, and M. S. Saleh, “Nanowire-Mesh Templated Growth of Out-of-Plane Three-Dimensional Fuzzy Graphene”, U.S.  Patent Application # WO/2018/195108, filed April 2018. Link

7. R. Panat and D. Heo, “Three-dimensional sub-mm wavelength sub-THz frequency antennas on flexible and in-situ cured dielectric using printed metal structures”, U.S. Patent # 10086432, issued Oct 2018. PDF

6. R. Panat and D. Heo, “Three-dimensional passive components”, U.S. Patent #9969001, issued May 2018. PDF

5. R. Panat and L. Lei, “Low-cost fiber optic sensor for large strain”, US Patent #9846276, issued December 2017. PDF

4. I. Dutta and R. Panat,” Highly stretchable interconnect devices and systems”, US Patent #9770759, issued Sept 2017. PDF

3. R. Panat and B. Jaiswal, “Nanowires coated on traces in electronic devices”, US Patent #9627320, issued April 2017. PDF

2. N. Raravikar and R. Panat, “Nanolithographic method of manufacturing an embedded passive device for a microelectronic application, and microelectronic device containing the same”, US Patent #8068328, issued May 2014. PDF

1. R. Panat, M. S. Saleh, “Additive manufacturing of porous scaffold structures”, U. S. Patent Application # 14/957,849, filed Dec 2015. PDF